Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks a part of the immune system. It targets white blood cells called CD4 (T cells). They are needed to fight off infections and other diseases. Low levels of CD4 cells make it harder for the body to stop or control infections and diseases.
AIDS is a late stage of HIV infection. It is a sign of severe damage to the immune system. This level of damage can allow infections that do not usually occur in healthy people. It also allows the growth of some cancers.
HIV is spread through contact with HIV-infected body fluids. This includes blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk.
HIV is most commonly spread through:
Rarely, HIV can be spread through:
Factors that may increase your chance of HIV infection include:
HIV may not cause problems for a number of years.
Early symptoms may appear 1 to 2 months after an infection. They may last a couple of weeks. Early symptoms may include:
There may be no additional symptoms for months to years. Symptoms that do occur over the years may include:
If left untreated, HIV infection may progress to AIDS. This may happen when the number of CD4 cells fall below certain levels. Infections that are rare in healthy people, begin to arise. Examples include:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests to confirm a diagnosis of HIV infection include:
There is no cure for HIV at this time. The goal of treatment is to control HIV. Treatment, called antiretroviral treatment, can:
Antiviral medicine can stop the virus from spreading in the body. However, it cannot get rid of the virus. Once treatment is stopped the virus will grow and spread again.
Antiviral medicines are often given in combination. Categories of these medicines include:
AIDS increases the risk of infections and cancer. Medicine may help to fight these infections. These may include antibiotics or antifungal medicine.
The doctor may recommend some steps to prevent new infections. This will depend on your needs and current risk factors. Options may include:
Regular check-ups will help you stay on track. Blood tests will show if the virus has changed and if treatment is working.
Chronic diseases can impact your day to day life. There are many support options that may help with these challenges. Options include:
There are steps you can take to decrease the risk of spreading HIV to others:
AMFAR—The Foundation for AIDS Research
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
AIDS Committee of Toronto
Canadian AIDS Society
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Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). AIDS website. Available at: https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/hiv-prevention/using-hiv-medication-to-reduce-risk/pre-exposure-prophylaxis. Accessed May 30, 2018.
Preventing transmission of HIV. AIDS info website. Available at: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/20/48/the-basics-of-hiv-prevention. Updated May 24, 2018. Accessed May 30, 2018.
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Last reviewed May 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board David L. Horn, MD, FACP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.