Ascites is the build-up of fluid in the abdominal cavity. Paracentesis is used to remove a sample of fluid or to drain fluid that has built up.
This is done to find out why there is fluid build-up in the abdomen. Causes may include:
This procedure may also be done when fluid in the abdomen:
Abdominal fluid can return until the condition causing it has been treated. You may need to have the procedure again.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Some factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
Be sure to discuss these risks with your doctor before the procedure.
Your doctor may do some or all of the following:
If the procedure is scheduled and not done on an emergency basis:
You will receive local anesthesia. The area will become numb. You will stay awake during the procedure.
This is usually done in the doctor's office. In some cases, your doctor may have you go to the hospital before or after this procedure. If you are already in the hospital for a different reason, this procedure will not extend your stay.
In most cases, you will lie on your back. In some instances, you may need to be in a different position. The area where the needle will be inserted is cleaned with a solution and draped with sterile cloths. An injection of a local anesthetic will be given to numb the area. A needle will be carefully inserted into the abdomen. The fluid will be removed using a syringe.
The amount of fluid removed depends on your condition. If it is being done to make a diagnosis, the doctor will remove a small amount of fluid and send it for testing. If the procedure is being done to make you feel better, more fluid may be removed.
About 10-15 minutes, depending on how much fluid needs to be removed
There will be some stinging or burning while the anesthesia is injected. After the area is numb, you will not feel pain.
You will stay in the recovery room for a few hours. Your blood pressure and other vital signs will be monitored. If you have a lot of fluid leakage or are having trouble breathing, you may need to stay in the care center.
Follow special instructions on caring for the needle insertion site and watching for signs of infection.
It is important to monitor your recovery. Alert your doctor to any problems. If any of the following occur, call your doctor:
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
American Cancer Society
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Ascites. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116330/Ascites. Updated July 1, 2014. Accessed October 7, 2016.
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6/2/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116330/Ascites: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Daus Mahnke, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.