Trauma is a serious injury or shock to the body. It is caused by a physical force, such as violence or an accident. The injury may be complicated by psychiatric, behavioral, and social factors. This can cause the injuries to be greater than just physical ones.
Some causes of trauma include:
Trauma is more likely if you are aged 1-44 years. Other factors that may increase the chance of trauma include:
Symptoms depend on the type or extent of injuries. Symptoms may include:
In addition, the following psychological effects may occur in response to trauma:
A medical team will assess your symptoms and medical history. A thorough physical exam will be done. It may include a chest exam, abdomen and pelvic exam, exam of extremities, and a neurologic exam. A psychological exam and/or suicide assessment may also be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
Your vital signs may be tested. This can be done with:
Imaging tests can be used to evaluate the injured area. These may include:
Treatment depends on the cause, severity, or location of the injury.
Severe injuries need to be immobilized to reduce the risk of further damage. Once this is complete, an assessment for life-threatening injuries or complications will be done. Stabilizing an injury may require:
Some injuries may require surgery. This may be done immediately to sustain life or at a later time to repair damage. Examples of surgery may include:
Some procedures, such as fracture repairs, may be delayed until swelling resolves.
For some, recovery may be short (days or weeks). For others, it may take a long time (months or years). This may include the use of assisted devices like a cane or wheelchair. Severe injuries, especially to the head, neck, and spinal cord, may require short- or long-term (or permanent) rehabilitation.
In general, recovery and rehabilitation includes one or more of the following:
To help reduce your chance of trauma:
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
National Safety Council
Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians
Trauma Association of Canada
Approach to the trauma patient. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries;-poisoning/approach-to-the-trauma-patient/approach-to-the-trauma-patient. Updated July 2015. Accessed December 28, 2015.
Majou R, Farmer A. ABC of psychological medicine: trauma. BMJ. 2002;325(7361):426-429.
Major trauma—emergency management. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T906321/Major-trauma-e...gency-management. Accessed September 27, 2016.
Spinal cord injury—acute management. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114275/Spinal-cord-inju...acute-management. Updated August 22, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2016.
Spinal cord injury—chronic management. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T566521. Updated December 18, 2015. Accessed September 27, 2016.
Trauma fact sheet. National Institute of General Medical Sciences website. Available at: https://www.nigms.nih.gov/Education/pages/Factsheet_Trauma.aspx. Updated November 2012. Accessed December 28, 2015.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.