Adrenocortical carcinoma is cancer of the adrenal cortex. The adrenal glands are 2 glands located above each kidney. The glands produce important hormones. These hormones regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and many other vital functions, including response to stress and infection. The adrenal cortex is the outside layer of the 2 adrenal glands.
Cancers of the adrenal cortex are rare. The majority of these tumors produce excess hormones. The excess hormones can change hormonal balance.
The cause of adrenocortical carcinoma is unknown.
There are few known risk factors for cancers of the adrenal cortex. A genetic defect may cause adrenocortical cancer in some children, but the majority of cases are nonhereditary.
Approximately 40% of people with adrenocortical carcinoma do not secrete any hormone. These people do not have any specific symptoms. Adrenocortical carcinoma is discovered as part of a physical examination for abdominal pain.
Other tumors are hormonally active. Excess hormones may produce symptoms such as:
You will be asked about your symptoms. A medical and family history will be collected. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be needed of your bodily structures. These can be made with:
After cancer of the adrenal cortex is confirmed, you will be referred to an oncologist. This is a cancer specialist.
Additional testing will be done to determine what stage the cancer has reached. The stage of a tumor is determined by its size and how far it has spread from its point of origin.
Treatment depends on the stage of the tumor and your overall health. Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you.
The following methods are used to treat cancer of the adrenal cortex:
Surgery to remove the adrenal tumor is the first treatment approach for most cases. Surrounding tissues or lymph nodes that contain cancer cells may also need to be removed.
These treatments tend to be less effective in treating this type of cancer. They are most often used if the cancer has spread. Chemotherapy may also be used if there is a high chance the cancer will come back.
If treatment is successful, you will still need to be screened for reoccurrence of the cancer on a periodic basis.
There are no known preventive measures. Healthy lifestyle choices may reduce your risk for all types of cancers.
American Cancer Society
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Adrenocortical carcinoma: treatment statement for health professionals. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/cancer.gov/CDR0000062907.html. Updated June 10, 2015. Accessed June 15, 2015.
Allolio B, Fassnacht M. Adrencortical carcinoma: clinical update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2027-37.
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Van Ditzhuijsen cI, van de Weijer R, Haak HR: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Neth J Med. 2007;65:55-60.
Last reviewed June 2015 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.